[citation needed]. NetMD recorders allow music files to be transferred from a computer to a recorder (but not in the other direction) over a USB connection. Omnidirektionale Party- und Lautsprecherbeleuchtung, Kantenschutz und Rollen für einfachen Transport, 360°-SOUND und satte Bässe über große Distanzen, 360-Grad-Party- und Lautsprecherbeleuchtung, Satte Bässe über große Distanzen mit JET BASSVERSTÄRKER, Partybeleuchtung und Lautsprecherbeleuchtung, Verteilter Sound mit leistungsstarken Hochtonlautsprechern, Kantenschutz und Griffe für einfachen Transport, EXTRA BASS™ für satten, kraftvollen Sound, LED-Beleuchtung und DJ-Effekte mit Sony | Music Center, Dank des integrierten Akkus können Sie Ihre Party überall steigen lassen und Musik wiedergeben, Unendlichkeitsspiegel sorgen für Partystimmung, Dank des integrierten Akkus kann Ihre Party überall steigen, Modus für Partys im Freien mit noch großflächigerer Klangverteilung, Spritzwassergeschütztes Bedienfeld auf der Oberseite, Lautsprecherbeleuchtung mit Stroboskoplicht, Leistungsstarker Sound dank Sound Pressure Horn, Unkomplizierte Verbindung mit dem Fernseher dank HDMI, S-Master HX Digitalverstärker, DSEE HX Upscaling, Eindrucksvoller Schalldruck und Mega Bass, Neue Lautsprecherbeleuchtung und Fiestable App, One-touch listening über Bluetooth® und NFC, S-Master Digitalverstärker, DSEE Upscaling. Its media were incompatible with standard audio MiniDiscs, which has been cited as one of the main reasons behind the format's failure. 4.2 out of 5 stars 59. MiniDiscs use rewritable magneto-optical storage to store the data. With the Diamond Rio player in 1998 and the Apple iPod, the mass market began to eschew physical media in favor of file-based systems. Some original sounds have been known to defeat ATRAC which typically introduces a crackle or whistle onto the data stream. 278/2009 der Kommission https://www.sony.de/electronics/umwelt/umweltschutz, Forenübersicht und allgemeine Diskussionen, Alle Fernseher und Home Entertainmentprodukte, Alle Mobiltelefone, Tablets und Smart-Geräte, Alle Energiespar-, Speicherprodukte und Kabel, Professionelle Produkte und Lösungen anzeigen. Get it as soon as Wed, Jan 20. Sony had originally intended Digital Audio Tape (DAT) to be the dominant home digital audio recording format, replacing the analog cassette. Unlike the conventional cassette, a recorded song does not need to be stored as one piece on the disk, it can be stored in several fragments, similar to a hard drive. Find the user manual you need for your audio device and more at ManualsOnline. LP2 mode uses a bitrate of 132 kbit/s and also uses separate stereo coding. Despite having a loyal customer base largely of musicians and audio enthusiasts, MiniDisc met with only limited success in the United States. Sony Compact Stereo Sound System for House with Bluetooth Wireless Streaming NFC, Micro Hi-Fi 50W, CD/DVD Player with Separate Speakers, FM Radio, USB Playback and Charge + NeeGo Bluetooth Receiver. Tracks recorded in LP2 or LP4 mode play back as silence on non-MDLP players. 8 Gebote. Spielen Sie Ihre Lieblings-CDs, oder geben Sie Ihre Musik via Bluetooth direkt vom Smartphone wieder. Sony attempted to license MD technology to other manufacturers, with JVC, Sharp, Pioneer, Panasonic and others all producing their own MD systems. This feature allows the player to stop the spindle motor for long periods, increasing battery life. 26-mar-2018 - Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Complete Vintage SONY Stereo System from early 1990s - Excellent! It was relatively popular in Japan and the United Kingdom during the 1990s, but did not enjoy comparable sales in other world markets. Notable exceptions are CD players, as well as all recent iPods. Transferring data from an MD unit to a non-Windows machine can only be done in real time, preferably via optical I/O, by connecting the audio out port of the MD to an available audio in port of the computer. Playback is accomplished with the laser alone: taking advantage of the Faraday effect; the player senses the polarisation of the reflected light and thus interprets a 1 or a 0. Inspirationen und Tipps und Tricks von unseren europäischen Fotobotschaftern. EUR 38,50. ATRAC reduces the 1.4 Mbit/s of a CD to a 292 kbit/s data stream, roughly a 5:1 reduction. During this time, it may display a message ("Data Save", on at least some models) and the case will not open. Integrated systems do not count. Due to technical delays, DAT was not launched until 1989, and by then the U.S. dollar had fallen so far against the yen that the introductory DAT machine Sony had intended to market for about $400 in the late 1980s now had to retail for $800 or even $1000 to break even, putting it out of reach of most users. Sony Compact Stereo Sound System for House with Bluetooth Wireless Streaming NFC, Micro Hi-Fi 50W, CD/DVD Player with Separate Speakers, FM Radio, Mega Boost, USB Playback and Charge, Remote Control. There have been four versions of the ATRAC data reduction system, each claimed (by Sony) to more accurately reflect the original audio. 4.0 out of 5 stars 277. They were only implemented in Sony's short-lived MD-based camcorder (the DCM-M1) as well as a small number of multi-track recorders; Sony's MDM-X4, Tascam's 564 (which could also record using standard MD-Audio discs, albeit only two tracks), and Yamaha's MD-8, MD-4, & MD4S. However, as a concession to this the most recent Hi-MD players can upload to PC a digitally recorded file which can subsequently be resaved as a WAV (PCM) file and thus replicated. [1], MD Data, a version for storing computer data, was announced by Sony in 1993 but never gained significant ground. Es hört sich alles schön plastisch an. oder Preisvorschlag. Older CD players had once been a source of annoyance to users as they were prone to mistracking from vibration and shock. Ebenso macht es Spass mit dem Android Smartphone Internetstreams über Bluetooth zu hören. Mains-powered hi-fi MiniDisc player/recorders never got into the lower price ranges, and most consumers had to connect a portable machine to the hi-fi in order to record. If the MiniDisc player were bumped, playback could continue unimpeded while the laser repositioned itself to continue reading data from the disc. Sony FM Stereo /FM-Am Tuner ST-S215 aus den 1980.Jahren mit Funktion-Radio Tade. In MiniDisc's last progression, Hi-MD, uncompressed CD-quality linear PCM audio recording and playback is offered, placing Hi-MD on a par with CD-quality audio. This created marketing confusion very similar to the Betamax versus VHS battle of the late 1970s and early 1980s. Sony CMT-SBT20 Compact Hi-Fi System - CMTSBT20.CEK (TV & Audio > Home Audio) -}a. All MiniDisc-recorders used the SCMS copy protection system which uses two bits in the S/PDIF digital audio stream and on disc to differentiate between "protected" vs. "unprotected" audio, and between "original" vs. "copy": Recording from an analogue source resulted in a disc marked "protected" and "original" allowing one further copy to be made (this contrasts with the SCMS on the Digital Compact Cassette where analogue recording was marked as "unprotected"). All consumer-grade MiniDisc devices feature a copy-protection scheme known as Serial Copy Management System. Speziell auf satte, kräftige Bässe ausgelegte Hardware. In 2015, an American audio company known as Hale Devices, Inc. was granted the rights to the brand name, with the company renaming itself Aiwa Corporation and starting to produce … Hi-MD also supports both ATRAC3 and ATRAC3plus in varying bitrates, but not the original ATRAC. $199.99 $ 199. Sony’s Purpose Fill the world with emotion, through the power of creativity and technology. Capacities are official Sony figures; real world figures are usually slightly higher. Sony Stereo Component System LBT-D709CD. ATRAC was also used on nearly all flash memory Walkman devices until the 8 series. This can lead to some fragmentation but unless many erasures and replacements are performed, the only likely problem is excessive searching, reducing battery life. Anyhow, topish brands I remember are. Thus, it cannot be used with non-Windows machines. 60-minute blanks, which were widely available in the early years of the format's introduction, were phased out long before and are rarely seen. Endet am Sonntag, 21:10 MEZ 5T 5Std. at the best online prices at … 4.3 out of 5 stars 416. Erased tracks are not actually erased at the time, but are marked so. The Shake-X10 is a 3-piece stereo system with a receiver and two 7.8” speakers. Unlike the DCC or the analog Compact Cassette, the disc is a random-access medium, making seek time very fast. Kabelloses Internet für schnellen Datenaustausch mit Notebook, Smartphone oder einem anderen Gerät. After the audio data is written out, the final step is to write the TOC track denoting the start and endpoints of the recorded data. Es ist verblüffend was die Lautsprecher leisten. When transferring music in SP mode using NetMD with SonicStage, what is transferred is in-fact padded LP2. 1990s. Sony brand audio players went on the market in September 1992. A magnetic head on the other side of the disc alters the polarity of the heated area, recording the digital data onto the disk. EUR 44,50. MiniDiscs were very popular in Japan and found moderate success in Europe. The bitrate of the standard SP mode is 292 kbit/s, and it uses separate stereo coding with discrete left and right channels. Initially, Sony believed that it would take around a decade for CD-R prices to become affordable – the cost of a typical blank CD-R disc was around $12 in 1994 – but CD-R prices fell much more rapidly than envisioned, to the point where CD-R blanks sank below $1 per disc by the late 1990s, compared to at least $2 for the cheapest 80-minute MiniDisc blanks. Denon D-M41 Home Audio Midi System, 60W, Black, Micro Chain, 2-way, 12 cm, 2.5 cm. The latest versions of Sony's ATRAC are ATRAC3 and ATRAC3plus, both of which are true lossy compression schemes and both require decompression on replay. Modes marked in green are available for recordings made on the player, while those marked in red are available for music transferred from a PC. Mit dem Sony Konto Neuigkeiten, Angebote und Aktionen entdecken. In dieser Rangliste sehen Sie als Käufer die Testsieger von Sony 5 disc stereo system, wobei die oberste Position den TOP-Favorit darstellt. This restriction existed in both the SonicStage software and in the MiniDisc player itself. By the time Sony came up with MiniDisc in late 1992, Philips had introduced a competing system, DCC. Mini-component system that introduced a new texture, less rigid layout for controls, and dark gray color scheme in a category that had been dominated by black units. By version 4, the potential number of generations of copy had increased to around 15 to 20 depending on audio content. Hi-MD is the further development of the MiniDisc-format. 30 Gebote. 99. Praktische kabellose Verbindung für kurze Entfernungen zwischen Telefonen, Notebooks, Kopfhörern usw. This means that using an MD recorded on a legacy unit or in a legacy format still requires a Windows machine for non-real time transfers. By 2007, because of the waning popularity of the format and the increasing popularity of solid-state MP3 players, Sony was producing only one model, the Hi-MD MZ-RH1, also available as the MZ-M200 in North America packaged with a Sony microphone and limited Apple Macintosh software support.[7][8][9]. The initial low uptake of MiniDisc was attributed to the small number of pre-recorded albums available on MD as relatively few record labels embraced the format. An unprotected disc or song can be copied without limit, but the copies can no longer be digitally copied. MiniDiscs use a mastering process and optical playback system that is very similar to CDs. Each speaker stands almost 20” high, so about a medium-sized home stereo system. EUR 9,49 Versand. Recording digitally from a source marked "unprotected" was also allowed; the "original/copy" marker was ignored and left unchanged. Version 1 could only be copied on consumer equipment three or four times before artifacts became objectionable, as the ATRAC on the recording machine attempts to data reduce the already reduced signal. On 7 July 2011, Sony announced that it would no longer ship MiniDisc Walkman products as of September 2011,[10] effectively killing the format. Sony brand audio players went on the market in September 1992. As of May 2005, there were 60-minute, 74-minute and 80-minute discs available. The initial high cost of equipment and blank media was also a factor. Sony LBT-V102 Stereoanlage mit Technics CD Player SL-PG4. It is claimed by Sony that the content that is omitted is inaudible anyway. The size of the buffer varies by model. Finden Sie das perfekte HiFi-System für Ihre Wohnung, Ihr Büro oder Ihre Party. Early MiniDisc equipment had a fragment granularity of 4 seconds audio. No means of defragmenting the disc is provided in consumer grade equipment. Sony’s Shake-X10 is more than your average Sony stereo system, this setup is designed to get a party started complete with built-in DJ system, karaoke, and lighting effects. Get it as soon as Thu, Jan 21. Through the late 1980s and 1990s, while hip-hop and grunge music took over the airwaves, another revolution affected nearly every listener, manifested in the way they consumed their favorite songs. The recorded signal of the premastered pits and of the recordable MD are also very similar. The data structure and operation of a MiniDisc is similar to that of a computer's hard disk drive. Native MP3 support was added in Second generation Hi-MD players in the spring of 2005. In 1997, MD-Data2 blanks were introduced, which held 650 MB of data. Sony ES Hi-Fi system 1990's with APM-22ES speakers - YouTube Sony Micro Stereo Hi-Fi Componenten System HCD - CX 5IP - auch für iPhone / iPod. NFC macht die drahtlose Geräteverbindung und Datenübertragung in nur einem Schritt möglich. Sony ATRAC3plus was not used in order to retain backwards compatibility with earlier NetMD players. Tolle Apps/Spiele/Filme/Shows mit Sony BRAVIA Android TV. In LP4 mode, speeds of up to 32× real-time are possible and three Sony NetMD recorders (MZ-N10, MZ-N910, and MZ-N920) are capable of speeds up to 64× real-time. Sony's MiniDisc was one of two rival digital systems, both introduced in 1992, that were targeted as replacements for the Philips Compact Cassette analog audio tape system: the other was Digital Compact Cassette (DCC), created by Philips and Matsushita. You absolutely want a component system. Bringen Sie mit verschiedenen LED-Lichteffekten, die zur Musik passen, Schwung in die Party. [11], On 1 February 2013, Sony issued a press release on the Nikkei stock exchange that it will cease shipment of all MD devices, with last of the players to be sold in March 2013. Lieferung an Abholstation. Get the best deals on Vintage Stereo System when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Preisvorschlag senden - Sony FM Stereo /FM-Am Tuner ST-S215 aus den 1980.Jahren mit Funktion … Es sieht so aus, als wäre in Ihrem Browser JavaScript deaktiviert. MiniDisc (MD) is a magneto-optical disc-based data storage format offering a capacity of 60, 74, and later, 80 minutes of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD data. The Shake-X10 is seriously loud! Sony Compact-HiFi Stereo System LBT-D309CD. [1], Sony announced the MiniDisc in September 1992 and released it in November of that year for sale in Japan and in December in Europe, Canada, the US and other countries. The audio discs can either be recordable (blank) or premastered. EUR 35,00 . The disc is permanently housed in a cartridge (68×72×5 mm) with a sliding door, similar to the casing of a 3.5" floppy disk. Early version players are guaranteed to play later version ATRAC audio because there is no processing required for replay. Oktober 2019 zur Festlegung von Ökodesign-Anforderungen an externe Netzteile gemäß der Richtlinie 2009/125/EG des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates und zur Aufhebung der Verordnung (EG) Nr. Juli 2011, "Sony says sayonara to MiniDisc, will sell its last players in March", "Experiments Toward an Erasable Compact Disc", "Sony MZ-M200 Hi-MD Recorder with Stereo Microphone", Sony To Wind Up MiniDisc Walkman Shipments, "Remember MiniDisc? Kazuo Matsunaga (Vice Chairman of the Board), Kenichiro Yoshida (Chairman, President and CEO), This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 01:00. Original ATRAC3 at 132 kbit/s (also known as ATRAC-LP2 mode) is the format that used to be used by Sony's now-defunct Connect audio download store. Unsere Website ist für ihren aktuellen Browser nicht optimiert. MiniDiscs can be edited very quickly even on portable machines. However, it would continue to sell blank discs and offer repair services. Klavier-Klassik von Radio ART hört sich über den Sony besser an wie über meine Stereoanlage. This inconvenience contrasted with the earlier common use of cassette decks as a standard part of an ordinary hi-fi set-up. [15] Hi-MD media will not play on non-Hi-MD equipment, including NetMD players. Sony … Professionelle Produkte & LösungenKontaktImpressum, Nutzungsbedingungen für die WebsiteDatenschutzbestimmungen. At the beginning of the disc there is a table of contents (TOC, also known as the System File area of the disc), which stores the start positions of the various tracks, as well as meta information (title, artist) about them and free blocks. Chronicle. A CD imported via a digital connection does not have the SMCS bits (as the format predates it), but the recording MD recorder treats any signal where the SMCS bits are missing as protected and original. Sämtliche in dieser Rangliste beschriebenen Sony 5 disc stereo system sind direkt im Netz verfügbar und somit in weniger als 2 Tagen in Ihren Händen. Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) and a modification of CD's CIRC code, called Advanced Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (ACIRC) are employed. The Hi-MD format, introduced in 2004, marked a return to the data storage arena with its 1 GB discs and ability to act as a USB drive. This article is about the Sony storage format. In 2019 a coder named Stefano Brilli compiled the linux-minidisc CLI into a web browser-based application,[13] allowing users to transfer music via USB to modern devices. Audio manuals and audio service pdf instructions. 3.9 out of 5 stars 18. Onkyo CS-265 Home Audio System CD Hi-Fi Mini Stereo System with Bluetooth - Black . The digitally encoded audio signal on a MiniDisc has traditionally been data-compressed using the ATRAC format (Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding). However, most pro users like broadcasters and news reporters had already abandoned MiniDisc in favor of solid-state recorders, due to their long recording times, open digital content sharing, high-quality digital recording capabilities and reliable, lightweight design. Sony 5 disc stereo system - Unser Gewinner . EUR 99,00. Finden Sie die passende Stereoanlage für Ihr Zuhause. Funktionen und Spezifikationen können ohne vorherige Ankündigung geändert werden. With the release of the Hi-MD format, Sony began to release Macintosh compatible software. However, the Mac compatible software is still not compatible with legacy MD formats (SP, LP2, LP4). [4], Sony has ceased development of MD devices, with the last of the players sold by March 2013.[5]. The most "integrated" you would get is a Receiver, which has the speaker amplifiers, audio source controls, and an AM/FM tuner. ATRAC was devised for MiniDisc so that the same amount of audio a CD (which contains uncompressed 16-bit stereo linear PCM audio) can carry can fit on a disc far smaller. FREE Shipping by Amazon . 99 $249.99 $249.99. Als wäre man dabei. Die All-in-One Stereoanlagen von Sony bieten kraftvollen Klang, trotz kompaktem Design. Here's How You Can Still Use It in 2020", List of artists with a Minidisc release – Discogs, Comparison of analog and digital recording, Professional Lighting and Sound Association, PlayStation Official Magazine – Australia, Sony Institute of Higher Education Shohoku College, Sony Toshiba IBM Center of Competence for the Cell Processor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=MiniDisc&oldid=1001050883, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2007, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 80 min (standard MiniDisc), up to 45 hours of audio (1 GB capacity) (with Hi-MD). Fragments smaller than the granularity are not kept track of, which may lead to the usable capacity of a disc actually shrinking. [6] It took, however, almost 10 years before their idea was commercialized. Meine alten CDs und MP3s höre ich jetzt wieder sehr gerne wegen dem guten Sound. Sony notes in the manual that one should not interrupt the power or expose the unit to undue physical shock during this period. The biggest competition for MiniDisc came from the emergence of MP3 players. This shutter is opened automatically by a mechanism upon insertion. Informationen zum externen Netzteil, das im Lieferumfang des Produkts enthalten ist (falls zutreffend), finden Sie unter dem Link zu Informationen über die Ökodesign-Anforderungen für externe Netzteile gemäß VERORDNUNG (EU) 2019/1782 DER KOMMISSION vom 1. More Buying Choices $187.14 (2 used & new offers) Sony Micro Hi-Fi Stereo … Wie oft wird der Sony 5 disc stereo system voraussichtlich eingesetzt werden? EUR 12,50 Versand. MiniDisc has a feature that prevents disc skipping under all but the most extreme conditions. This is needed to ensure uninterrupted playback in the presence of disc fragmentation. [16] SonicStage version 3.4, released in Feb 2006,[17] introduced ripping CDs in bitrates 320 and 352[18] and added track transfer in ATRAC 192kbps to Hi-MD devices. $224.99 $ 224. Um Sony.de uneingeschränkt aufrufen zu können, müssen Sie Ihre Einstellungen ändern, um JavaScript zuzulassen. Tracks may easily be added, erased, combined and divided, and their preferred order of playback modified. A buffer of at least six seconds is required on all MiniDisc players, be they portable or stationary full-sized units. NetMD recorders all support MDLP. A free *nix based implementation, libnetmd, has been developed. MiniDisc solved this problem by reading the data into a memory buffer at a higher speed than was required before being read out to the digital-to-analog converter at the standard rate required by the format. For other similarly-named formats and other uses of the term, see, Magneto-optical storage medium, mainly used for audio, MiniDisc by TDK, with AA-battery to compare size (height of AA-battery approx. Aiwa was then rebranded as a new youth-focused division of Sony, but it was unsuccessful and the brand was discontinued by 2006. 2000s. SONY Kompakt Stereoanlage … Recording digitally from a source marked "protected" and "original" (produced by a prerecorded MD or an MD that recorded an analogue input) was allowed, but the recorder would change the "original" bit to the "copy" state on the disc to prevent further copying of the copy. The company became unprofitable in the late 1990s, and was fully bought by Sony in 2003. This is in fact a 'psychoacoustic' data reduction system which omits some of the musical content. 20.12.2020. The last mode, LP4, has a bitrate of 66 kbit/s and uses joint stereo coding. The Hi-MD model MZ-RH1, was the only such player available. The data structure of the MiniDisc, where music is recorded in a single stream of bytes while the TOC contains pointers to track positions, allows for gapless playback of music, something which the majority of competing portable players, including most MP3 players, fail to implement properly. Hi-MD units allow the recording and playback of audio and data on the same disc, and are compatible (both audio and data) with standard MiniDisc media – an 80-minute Minidisc blank could be formatted to store 305MB of data. Tracks can be split, combined, moved or deleted with ease either on the player or uploaded to PC with Sony's SonicStage V4.3 software and edited there. Sony CMT-SBT20 Mini Stereoanlage CD FM USB Bluetooth. NetMD is a proprietary protocol, and it is currently impossible to use it without proprietary software, such as SonicStage. MD Data could not write to audio-MDs, only the considerably more expensive data blanks. In 2000, Sony announced MDLP (MiniDisc Long Play), which added new recording modes based on a new codec called ATRAC3. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Lernen Sie mehr über die Modelle mit Bluetooth und NFC. That is to say that the quality of the music is that of LP2 but recorded as SP. Relegating DAT to professional use, Sony set to work to come up with a simpler, more economical digital home format. The introduction of the MZ-RH1 allowed users to freely move uncompressed digital recordings back and forth from the MiniDisc to a computer without the copyright protection limitations previously imposed upon the NetMD series. Tracks and discs can be named. 20.12.2020. SonicStage V3.4 was the first version of the software where this restriction was removed, but it still required a MiniDisc recorder/player that also had the restriction removed. It was introduced in 2004. [14] The libnetmd allows the user to upload SP files in full quality. Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices. Für Ihren Browser ist möglicherweise eine neuere Version verfügbar. Wir empfehlen Ihnen, eine aktuelle Version eines der folgenden Browser herunterzuladen: Unsere Website ist für ihren aktuellen Browser nicht optimiert. At the end of recording, after the "Stop" button has been pressed, the MiniDisc may continue to write music data for a few seconds from its memory buffers. Preisvorschlag senden - Sony Micro Stereo Hi-Fi Componenten System HCD - CX 5IP - auch für iPhone / iPod. This allowed the MiniDisc to better compete with HD recorders and MP3 players. [2] The music format was originally based on ATRAC audio data compression, but the option of linear PCM digital recording was later introduced to meet audio quality comparable to that of a compact disc. The MD copy, therefore, cannot be further digitally copied. Since then, recordable CDs, flash memory and HDD and solid-state-based digital audio players such as iPods have become increasingly popular as playback devices. [3] Until March 2011 Sony has sold 22 million MD players. In 1983, just a year after the introduction of the Compact Disc, Kees Schouhamer Immink and Joseph Braat presented the first experiments with erasable magneto-optical Compact Discs during the 73rd AES Convention in Eindhoven. Of those recorder/players that could be connected to a PC via a USB lead, although it was possible to transfer audio from the PC to the MiniDisc recorder, for many years it was not possible to transfer audio the other way. However, non-Sony machines were not widely available in North America, and companies such as Technics and Radio Shack tended to promote DCC instead. MiniDisc (MD) is a magneto-optical disc-based data storage format offering a capacity of 60, 74, and later, 80 minutes of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD data.