Specialists in Bantu emphasize that there is a clear difference between genders (such as known from Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European) and nominal classes (such as known from Niger–Congo). Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. 0000005458 00000 n Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Although one of the main points of interest is the fascinating variation in the family, a couple of generalizations can be made with respect to Bantu morphosyntax. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. Citation Form: muntu. Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Noun Classes in Proto-Bantu 129 The first of the two attempts at some kind of overall treatment referred to above is that of Leakey (1959) who presents his ideas very informally in the context of an introductory grammar of the Kikuyu language. 0000157210 00000 n Languages with nominal classes divide nouns formally on the base of hyperonymic meanings. 0000157343 00000 n There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. 0000240312 00000 n Uses plural of classes 6 and 10. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). (These nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians.). Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. All nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes. The similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century. L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! As most Bantu languages, Xhosa has a class system. ��`*�G���������fh�]��L ��E�$ BdJ[B_`J���V��)J���)���˺ܔO�2���d��� Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. This paper focuses on nominal classification in Bantu, Romance and Chinese. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. Use a custom field for the plural form. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. 0000006326 00000 n There are 556 documented Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" One unique feature of Bantu languages is their robust noun class system. ���b�*��?pWs�Ar�)�9h~cLƜc,����a��S�ǁ��x��0�j���j�T��Xɞ�X���A�՚ �Ơ����O;�. Class 11 for extended body parts. 0000007419 00000 n Order this publication Swahili = "relative clause" (4)a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana . In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. Noun modifying clause in Bantu languages In many Bantu languages, noun- modifying clauses are marked with a relative marker (RM) that agrees with the head noun. L�"@,���"���'�Y�l��(�� ��D��C����a��_�V���i��i��q���3c�O�Cc6��h���w�z�l��x~?�����M&�Q�IHG�qC.C>n�V@P��p��,4ڈh�!bt갅+u)X��N�a,��' ���C�Xn���-�1���PI�~3 �X�#�TP�g޻�%��yZ�*�fe����2+?f��.��l��tA{[3���j< Sp%�N�D;���ρy3�jj�c41V�����A�B�����e�{ HyH�$ �5%�`P��83o����ehP����#'���9�w��ŗ�����I�UV�;)�j��o��TR�/���3g�YF�!B������=��s�"�ޠ�O�K�„���b]�I���E*cS�owE6z1(�����'�š�KGy�mޢ���U�4W8E����I}�e~ :mdh�� D�2��Ȫ�q�3���LvI�sV�s+�f��ɳ�,����D��#�8��I�I��N Noun stems were prefixed with a noun prefix to specify their meaning. Classes 12-13 for diminutives. Denny & Creider 1976, Contini-Morava 1997, 2000, Moxley 1998), and indeed some generalizations on the semantic contents of the noun classes can also be made in Ha (Harjula 2004). 0000001839 00000 n and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. According to him, the only generalizations that hold across Bantu are the fact that the 1/2 gender denotes For example, humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2; … Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. Because there is no verb conjugation, but instead verb construction, the noun classes tend to be the most difficult part of the language. It has been observed that noun classes can also be semantically classified. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Other authors however prefer … 0000001860 00000 n show both characteristics of PB prefixes: L tone and nasals in classes 1, 3, 6(a), 9 and 10). 0000005266 00000 n Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. The term Bantu as a name for the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Similar to all Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a noun class system. Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… The 19 noun classes of Proto-Bantu were: Classes 1-2 for people. This study will also investigate the distinction between those prefixes which are exclusively used to categorise size and shape deviations, namely those belonging to classes 12/13, 19, 20, 21 and 22; and those class prefixes which have a secondary function of indicating such The morphology of EkeGusii nouns, just like in other Bantu languages (Demuth 2000: 278), is different from that of English in one crucial manner; that while EkeGusii nouns are classified into groups known as noun classes, English nouns are not. Of particular interest is the question of what happens in a language where both plurals and singulars are morphologically marked. noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. Sense 1. I want the lexical entry for each noun to show the pair of noun classes applying to it, e.g. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000010785 00000 n While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. I still struggle with them. Read more about this topic:  Noun Class, Language Families, Niger–Congo Languages, “The very natural tendency to use terms derived from traditional grammar like verb, noun, adjective, passive voice, in describing languages outside of Indo-European is fraught with grave possibilities of misunderstanding.”—Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897–1934), plural: persons (a plural counterpart of class 1), plural: plants (a plural counterpart of class 3), plural: fruits (a plural counterpart of class 5, 9, 11, seldom 1), plural: things (a plural counterpart of class 7), plural: animals, things (a plural counterpart of class 9 and 11). However, just outside Narrow Bantu, noun class prefixes are usually high tone and the nasals are typically missing. )�q\�q6���ǩ�i2�K�z���J��ɕ��4�lZ"���L��G#G �������8�G}^z��%�_N����"֠�Kg�B�����Χ����DU�%V�wY2j��P9>߷�Qj�b��)ń>�K �Z&D��SOp�-�����#�A���VOs�u@�T�5�4�c��$�C"N��O&������,�Y��C�`G��ȼ��}�\��=*@������I�M�֐x���Ql�C��%:� �� � ��P� � T�آ;��- ,�� (S���7����[�������T 1d��1�r$�`9���9.i9 V��20Ndve�d�b�f���1t0-bf���.�F���W�*�g�`0d�̐���(3+��py����]��1u6����.8!3� ��� endstream endobj 96 0 obj 533 endobj 65 0 obj << /CropBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /Parent 55 0 R /StructParents 53 /Contents 78 0 R /Rotate 0 /BleedBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /ArtBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /TrimBox [ 0 0 419.528 595.276 ] /Resources << /Font << /TT0 66 0 R /TT1 69 0 R /TT2 79 0 R /C2_0 72 0 R /C2_1 73 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ExtGState << /GS0 89 0 R /GS1 88 0 R >> >> /Type /Page >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 75 0 R /LastChar 241 /Widths [ 250 333 0 0 500 833 778 0 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 0 611 333 278 333 0 500 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 444 444 0 500 1000 0 980 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 760 0 0 564 0 760 0 0 0 0 0 333 576 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 750 0 0 0 722 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 444 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 76 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 67 0 obj << /StemV 136 /FontName /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 83 0 R /FontWeight 700 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /Ascent 1026 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 457 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Length 476 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. Bantu noun classes. All members of a given class share the same prefix. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. trailer << /Size 97 /Info 62 0 R /Root 64 0 R /Prev 1196580 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 64 0 obj << /MarkInfo << /Marked true >> /ViewerPreferences << /Direction /L2R >> /Metadata 61 0 R /Pages 52 0 R /StructTreeRoot null /Type /Catalog /PageLabels 50 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /S 602 /L 705 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 96 0 R >> stream 0000003156 00000 n In Ganda each singular class has a corresponding plural class (apart from one class which has no singular–plural distinction; also some plural classes correspond to more than one singular class) and there are no exceptions as there are in Swahili. Earlier treatments of the noun classes . The singular form of a noun belongs to a di erent noun class than the plural form of that noun does. All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. [9] The term "Bantu" as a name or the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. vS5M�ݟU��m�Y9)�6��s��z$Qǽ���i��76���[��nr����?k Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. If one follows broader linguistic tradition and counts singular and plural as belonging to the same class, then Swahili has 8 or 9 noun classes, Sotho has 11 and Ganda has 10. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. 0000001214 00000 n Each noun belongs to a class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like … The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. Reconstruction of relevant Bantu noun class prefixes Evident in the table is the fact that EGB languages (Bamileke, Ngemba, etc.) Bantu noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings. Classes 9-10 included animals and miscellanea. Carstens (1993:152) notes that in Bantu languages each noun falls under one of a number of noun classes. Classes … In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. 0000009199 00000 n 0000156490 00000 n 19 pi or the classes … and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. Noun classes. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields An inflection class, on the other hand, by definition never triggers agreement. �ҩp*� In this article, I … The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Ntu term for “people” or “humans”. %PDF-1.3 %���� • noun class system: the most distinctive morphological feature of Zulu, as of all Bantu languages, is the grouping of nouns in different classes, marked by a prefix. In the prefix is for class 6 and is plural. This seems to them to be inconsistent with the way other languages are traditionally considered, where number is orthogonal to gender (according to the critics, a Meinhof-style analysis would give Ancient Greek 9 genders). In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. The most prominent grammatical characteristic of Bantu languages is the extensive use of affixes (see Sotho grammar and Ganda noun classes for detailed discussions of these affixes). In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. 9 and 10). I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. It was first introduced (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Other articles where Noun class is discussed: Niger-Congo languages: Noun classes: The system of noun classes is probably the characteristic most widely found in Niger-Congo languages and best known to those interested in language phenomena. A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. For example, David Ker (p.c. 19 pi or the classes above 20. The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can … In Bantu languages. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. For example, by Meinhof's numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17. 0000007448 00000 n Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun classes. noun classes to semantic categories. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. �Ҧ�)m Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000157478 00000 n In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. Bleek). Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000006630 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. Much easier! Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. These noun classes tend to connect to semantic domains: e.g., humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2. Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. Some sources argue that the distinction is between things which are powerful and things which are not. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. e�هwR��q����Pb0! 1 1) (1) a. $U�@(������ �q� *Sd`(��F���la�]dc��.p]`�dYQ�Վ�����'��&. These missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages Each class has its own set of prefixes, named concords. ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 �Ҧ�)m 0000197327 00000 n 1 1) (1) a. a-bad 5-cloth 'cloth' b. me-bad 6-cloth 'cloths' In the prefix is for class 5 and is singular. 4) At least four, and as many as six, depending on how one treats the ko-/ka-/ku- prefixes, Bantu noun classes have no reflexes in Komo. KB�$����p���App8��� 886��t��ac��l1�O�*��������ci�n��F6�i Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. Noun classes []. It contends that, though the noun class system of Esahie per se is morpho-syntactically vestigial, hence differing from other African languages (e.g. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. 0000004633 00000 n [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … Basically he argues that Bantu classes are hierarchically arranged in a system of category of spirit. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). H��WYo�F~ׯ�G Noun classes determine concord morphology on nominal modi ers and agreement on verbs. 3, Palmer & Woodman 2000:226, Selvik 2001:162). �Q@��"E)��HD�( RD�H "E$LL���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� Language structure. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. (26) Summary of Komo reflexes of Bantu noun classes ex. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. Contini-Morava 1994:2.2. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. [4] For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Noun Classification in Swahili. Bantu noun classes All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. The possible Komo reflexes of Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown as follows. 0 ��w� endstream endobj 75 0 obj << /StemV 80 /FontName /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 84 0 R /FontWeight 400 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /Ascent 1007 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 448 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 714 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. Critics of the Meinhof's approach notice that his numbering system of nominal classes counts singular and plural numbers of the same noun as belonging to separate classes. Comparative Bantu Online Dictionary - includes a comprehensive bibliography. 0000156412 00000 n 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. In addition, Luganda has four locative classes, e, ku, mu, and wa. �Ҧ�)m The noun classes in Bantu languages are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes nouns and as agreement markers (or, concords) on other syntactic constituents, like adjectives, numerals, verbs and others. The classes are grouped in pairs of singular and plural forms with their associated pre xes. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. However, these generalizations do not apply to The category of nominal class replaces not only the category of gender, but also the categories of number and case. Noun classes []. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. 0000156103 00000 n 0000002290 00000 n 63 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 65 /H [ 1214 646 ] /L 1197968 /E 241226 /N 19 /T 1196590 >> endobj xref 63 34 0000000016 00000 n Other words that related or referred to that noun, such as adjectives and verbs, also received a prefix that matched the class of the noun ("agreement" or "concord"). IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. �����*� 0000197405 00000 n H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v I still struggle with them. For example, humans are prototypically in classes … Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. 0000004017 00000 n Languages with noun classes. Details". A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us if the noun is singular (one) or plural (many). 0000003466 00000 n However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. For instance, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book' is composed of a noun prefix ki- and a nominal root -tabu. "Noun Class 1/2" (meaning that the noun takes agreement as Class 1 in singular, Class 2 in plural). Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. Plural Form: bantu. Bantu noun classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes. �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Phonotactics of noun class disambiguation in Xhosa* Aaron Braver,1 Wm. Some classes are semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them include many miscellaneous items.

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