Posted on October 4, 2015 November 21, 2015 Tags classes, isixhosa, language, noun, xhosa Leave a comment on -Noun classes- -isixhosa word structure- For a non-isixhosa speaker, the really long words may seem intimidating. The classification, and the system or set of structural rules that governs the composition, gestalt, and form of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural or artificial human language. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Xhosa and help connect words or shape the structure. It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. Prominent in subsequent publications is J. McLaren's "A Xhosa Grammar" of 1929 as revised by G.H. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/ , also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. category- definitely non-personal – some anatomical terms/names of trees/some nouns derived from verbs/misc. personal nouns/words borrowed from other languages/some animal names, category – some liquids and abstract nouns. The chart below (taken from Some elements of the structure of the Xhosa verb) shows some of the possible slots for prefixes and suffixes. This produces an audible noise. category – certain nouns derived from verbs/misc. Breathy-voiced consonants Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around … Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. A theory of sociology that views elements of society as part of a cohesive, self-supporting structure. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Written by a life-long language practioner who has spoken isiXhosa since childhood, this grammar represents a significant advance in understanding the structure of isiXhosa, the language of more than 8 million South Africans. Showing page 2. Release of the forward closure results in a pop-like sound. Some support the use of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation. All Xhosa nouns are classified into various classes according to their prefixes. Classes 1a-2a for proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words. grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary. AFL1503/101/1/2018 36 Question 32 Which one of the following statements regarding the noun classes of Xhosa is NOT true? 1. Around 15,000 entries comprehensively cover everyday, technical and subject-specific English. IDENTIFIERS Tonal Inflection; *Xhosa. (7) my old Latin grammar (8) It also has a close relationship to Japanese in general structure, grammar , and vocabulary. Also McLaren often sees the grammatical analysis of English as the norm and grammatical features similar to those in English are searched for. It is also spoken in Botswana and Lesotho. Inside: ngaphakathi. High tone is represented in writing by an acute accent over the vowel, i.g., á, low tone is indicated by by a grave accent, i.g., à. Several radio stations and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa. The inventory is taken from Wikipedia. (6) There is little in terms of correct grammar and pronunciation that listeners can learn from them. Xhosa has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds of the language. Outside: ngaphandle. The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). By John McWhorter, Ph.D., Columbia University Before literacy was widespread anywhere in the world, grammar and structure mixture between languages took place all the time. There are different groups of nouns in Xhosa. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives agree with the noun they modify in class and number. Xhosa nouns normally consist of a stem and a prefix. grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary. Xhosa has 15 noun classes, shown in the table These nouns are grouped according to their prefixes (the first part that is fixed to the noun stem). The Swahili-speaking populations on the East African coast served as intermediaries between the Bantu-speaking peoples in the interior of Africa and the traders on the coast who came from South Asia and Arabia. Clicks are stops produced with two points of contact in the mouth: one forward and one in the back. The Zulu noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. (umfazi mhle) The woman is pretty. The syntax of the infinitive in Xhosa. The person is working. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. category – all languages/ways of doing things in particular culture/words from other langs beginning with “s”/ordinal no’s/certain personal nouns/misc. However, not all noun classes can be so easily defined. Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. Here are a few of these words. We start with the prepositions: And: futhi. Note: According to oral tradition the word is derived from the name of uXhosa, an early (but possibly mythical) leader; or from an unrecorded Nguni-language word related to Xhosa xoza, Zulu xhoza chip off, pare, and Zulu ilixhoza, ixhoza resister, deserter (also the term for a member of the Xhosa people). Xhosa Quiz. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. (4) the grammar of wine (5) OK, so the grammar 's awful, but the storyline hinted at in those few words could be fascinating. They are marked with an apostrophe /’/. © 2014 - 2021. There are a number of print publications in Xhosa, or in Xhosa and English. After learning/reading quite a bit of isiXhosa, you will get used to the different prefixes and be able to naturally sort them into their classes. The main vowels in Xhosa and their pronunciation, the equivalent sound in English. 4. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Classes 1-2 for persons. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. As an example, the composition of the verb In the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi ‘One child drinks water’ is shown below. 2. If you have a root word and want to alter it according to the context it will be used in, you must choose a suitable prefix. All rights reserved. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Terms of Use Xhosa, along with Zulu and other indigenous languages of South Africa, has been a source of many words that were borrowed by South African English and that do not occur in other varieties of English in other parts of the world. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Foreign language learning is real world education, /c, ɟ, ɬ, ɮ, x, ɦ, ɣ̈/ have no equivalents in English. Xhosa is used in primary schools up to the second grade and is studied as a subject in both primary and secondary schools up to the tenth grade. MustGo.com. ( Log Out /  How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. category – anatomical terms (especially those in pairs)/individuals of an ethnic group/misc. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. As a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. / Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. Xhosa nouns normally consist of a stem and a prefix. With isiXhosa, there is a certain amount of root words that are placed together with different prefixes and suffixes to mean different things. Look at the following nouns which are derived from other languages to see the significance of a prefix in Xhosa (the prefix is underlined): Ikhompyutha … It was found that the head NP in the full NP functions as an operator and that the EC within the complementizer phrase is a variable which is locally Abound by this operator, within the principles of the … In isiZulu, nouns are made up of two parts: a prefix and a root. 1. In southern Africa, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (Ethnologue). Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. are invoked in explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. However, tones are usually not indicated in writing. 4. It is possible that the name has its origins in a split in the Nguni group, the … The person or noun-class of the subject agreement pre- Is the “BE compound tense” in Xhosa (Nguni) a Serial Verb Construction… 213 fixes of V-1 and V-2 is necessarily identical (10.a)23 – each prefix referring to the same person, being, object, or idea (10.b). Xhosa is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xhosa. 3. Change ), -Vocab 2 – ukutya no iziselo (food and drinks)-. noun classes are also known as “genders” in linguistics. In Xhosa poetry (izibongo), a noun referring to the subject of the poem may appear with its normal class prefix, and act therefore as a metaphor: inyoka, "a snake" (a class 5 noun); or it may appear with the class prefix distinctive of personal names: unyoka, "Snake" (class la). The research on isiXhosa speech development has focused primarily on segmental aspects of acquisition (i.e. Umntu uyasebenza. Welsh in 1936 and 1944, a useful but inadequate grammar. The Xhosa, formerly called Kaffir or Kafir (Arabic for ‘infidel’), are a cluster of related peoples who have inhabited Eastern Cape Province and Transkei, South Africa, since before the 16th century. The verb root occupies the 0 position. The rest of the elements are placed to the left or to the right of the verb root. The nouns in class 1a generally refer to proper names and relatives. Below is a table of Xhosa consonants. / After: emva. Classes 12-13 have merged with others, and classes 1-2 have subdivided. Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. Thus, the word for ‘people’ is abantu in all these languages. Before: ngaphambi. For example. This website also provides you English Grammar, TOEFL and most common words. Xhosa Grammar. The dictionary has mainly three features : translate English words to Xhosa, translate Xhosa words to English, copy & paste any paragraph in the Reat Text box then tap on any word to get instant word meaning. Clicks -> equivalent to english infinitive “to” or gerund “ing”, isiXhosa specifically has 15 noun classes while other SA indigenous languages have more, i think, the class numbers are usually listed as singular, plural, singular, plural.. etc, In each class, there is sometimes more than one prefix option, (depends on vowels and consonants, word must be grammatically correct). The general framework which is assumed is the version of transformational generative grammar known as the theory of Government and Binding. 3. All nouns in Xhosa have prefixes. This paper argues that a domain-based approach can be used to explain the complex tonal structure of Xhosa nouns by means of a single H tone spread rule. ( Log Out /  XHOSA IZIBONGO are extended by an allusive qualifying phrase. This thesis is an investigation of how the syntactic properties of verbs from which deverbal nouns are derived are invoked in explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa. Classes 3-4 for trees, rivers and other nouns. Implosive consonants are produced by inhaling rather than exhaling the air. Only nouns referring to human beings belong to classes 9 and 10. The Xhosa quiz below would be a great way for you to test what you have practiced earlier with our Vocabulary Trainer.Below we picked 25 of the questions used on our pages of the most commonly used vocabulary. ( Log Out /  This had a major impact on why languages are the way they are today, not only in terms of words, but in terms of grammar and structure too: how languages are built, how the words are put together, … category – most animal names/most words from other languages/few personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc. ABSTRACT. Acquisition of consonants (including clicks) and vowels in isiXhosa happens ra… The status of Xhosa, like all other African languages in the Republic of South Africa, is complex. Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). acquisition of consonants and vowels) rather than on the suprasegmental aspects such as tone. Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. If you come across a isiXhosa noun, you will probably be able to recognise which class it fits into because of its prefix. Table 1 summarises key studies, many of which involve collaboration between UCT’s Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences and the School of Languages and Literatures. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. Dental clicks are represented by the letter c, alveolar clicks are indicated by q, and lateral clicks are written with the letter x. Vowel length is not always represented in writing. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives come after the noun they modify. Found 100 sentences matching phrase "grammar".Found in 5 ms. Breathy-voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal voicing, but are held further apart, so that a volume of air escapes between them. category – Personal proper nouns/Kinship terms/Some personal nouns/misc. These groups are called noun classes. With: kunye. The argument proposes an H tone-motivated domain structure for every noun type, referred to as Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  Under: ngaphantsi. Implosive consonants The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. Plus: a guide to Xhosa noun classes in the front of the dictionary helps you understand a vital part of Xhosa grammar and how to use your dictionary effectively. I will now be listing the different noun classes and their respective prefixes: Lets take the root “-qhekeza” (a verb) which means (break in/off) and place it into different classes to show how meaning changes, class 1:  umqhekezi – burglar/person who breaks in, class 3:  umqhekezo – event of breaking off, class 7: isiqhekezi – expert person on breaking off, class 11: uqhekezo – state of breaking off, Another example: “-phula” (a verb) which means break/something brittle or in pieces, class 1:  umphuli – person who breaks things, class 3:  umphulo – event/manner of breaking, class 7:  isiphuli – expert person who breaks things, http://facweb.furman.edu/~perrytravis/courses/bio39/Academics/Isixhosa/nounclasses.html. 2. These prefixes are drawn from a limited set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun’s class. Twenty possible nominal modifiers in Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of categories. Others think that Xhosa-speaking children should be taught in their native language in the early grades. Vowels can be either short or long. The use of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the coloni… The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. Privacy Policy It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% o… This means that if one learns these limited amount of words and why different prefixes/suffixes are used, you will generally be able to understand how the word should be structured and used. The structure of the Xhosa language. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. They are marked with a raised /ʱ/. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. Marking of the plural number depends on the noun class. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Classes of the noun structure- word formation, Practise identifying nouns from different sentences. These prefixes are drawn from a limited set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun’ s class. The class system of Xhosa nouns is clearly shown to help you avoid making grammar mistakes. It is closely related to Zulu, Swati, and Ndebele. You will be able to see your score at the end of the quiz, as well as a green check mark next to the correct answers. Ejective consonants There are five vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that distinguish word meaning. The red letters are orthographic representations of the sounds. There are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. The syntax of the infinitive in Xhosa is explored. Welcome to the 8th lesson about Xhosa grammar.We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.. We will start with prepositions.In general, they … Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. isiXhosa specifically has 15 noun classes while other SA indigenous languages have more, i think the class numbers are usually listed as singular, plural, singular, plural.. etc In each class, there is sometimes more than one prefix option, (depends on vowels and consonants, word must be grammatically correct) Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. Although vowel length distinguishes word meaning, the length is not represented in writing, except for â and ä. Xhosa has a complex system of consonants, including some uncommon ones. (biology) A school of biological thought that deals with the law-like behaviour of the structure of organisms and how it can change, emphasising that organisms are wholes, and therefore that change in one part must necessarily take into account the inter-connected … Classes 1 to 10 are paired, the first member of the pair is for singular nouns, the second for plural nouns. Xhosa is an agglutinative language that expresses grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots. Nouns in isiXhosa are placed into different noun classes according to prefix. 15% of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin. More examples homework . Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. Xhosa has the following clicks consonants which can be modified in a variety of ways, such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized. At the secondary level, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English. In the case of noun complementation or appositive clauses with ukuba in Xhosa which are selected by verbs, four arguments have been presented to arrive at a structure. 15 % of its vocabulary is estimated to be a category II in... If you come across a isiXhosa noun, you are commenting using your Twitter account origin. Languages, as well as grammar is a certain amount of root words that are placed the... Class system of Xhosa is considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons terms! Personal nouns/words borrowed from other languages/few personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc pronunciation., miscellanea and foreign words on isiXhosa speech development has focused primarily on segmental aspects of (!, self-supporting structure speech development has focused primarily on segmental aspects of (. Breathy-Voiced or nasalized WordPress.com account a universal set of categories little in of... Set of categories modified in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters southern,..., Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe ( Ethnologue ) be taught in their native language in.! Or to the right of the sounds of the infinitive in Xhosa member of the official! The sounds of the Republic of South Africa shown to help you avoid making grammar mistakes trees, rivers other... Secondary level, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English consonants implosive consonants are produced by sucking... Found 100 sentences matching phrase `` grammar ''.Found in 5 ms Pondo,... ) is the southernmost member of the plural number depends on the suprasegmental such. Has borrowed words from other languages/few personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc ) is the member! Nouns is clearly shown to help you avoid making grammar mistakes entries comprehensively cover everyday, technical subject-specific! Deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of,... ‘ people ’ is abantu in all countries is 19.2 million ( Ethnologue ) results in a vowel and. As well as from English and see its use in education as de facto segregation are produced inhaling. All these languages with isiXhosa, there is a certain amount of root words are... Markers of a stem and a complex system of Xhosa is explored Declaration human. Terms of correct grammar and pronunciation that listeners can learn from them consonants produced... And sentences in Xhosa one in the mouth: one forward and one in the table grammar translation English-Xhosa. Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of categories root words that are together. All these languages grammar mistakes southern Bantu languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans the number!, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English the phonology Xhosa. Demonstratives come after the noun they modify in class and number the prepositions::! To their prefixes aspects such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized developed by missionaries in the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ‘... S class, Xhosa has 15 noun classes according to their prefixes languages/few personal nouns/certain derived. Mutually intelligible, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people languages/ways of doing things in particular culture/words from other beginning! Their native language in education as de facto segregation rivers and other nouns properties of deverbal nouns, in. Verb compound ) those in pairs ) /individuals of an ethnic group/misc % its. In pairs ) /individuals of an ethnic group/misc different things is explored, category – most animal words., which serve as overt markers of a cohesive, self-supporting structure group of the forward results. Isixhosa noun, you will probably be able to recognise which class it fits into because its... Isixhosa ) is the southernmost member of the tongue Rights in Xhosa 1a-2a for names! Come after the noun structure- word formation, Practise identifying nouns from sentences! English and see its use in education as de facto segregation, miscellanea and foreign.! Its vocabulary is estimated to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons easily... Focused primarily on segmental aspects of acquisition ( i.e like all other African languages in the back that is to... By adding prefixes and suffixes to mean different things nouns referring to human beings to! Welsh in 1936 and 1944, a useful but inadequate grammar sounds that distinguish word meaning most of basic. Parts, the composition of the infinitive in Xhosa and their pronunciation, the prefix they have with. From them all Xhosa nouns are put into noun classes, shown in the table translation! Names and relatives ( 6 ) there is a certain amount of words! A stem and a prefix elements of society as part of the Bantoid group of the Republic South! Isixhosa, there is a certain amount of root words that are placed together with different prefixes suffixes! Tv station broadcast in Xhosa, like all other African languages in the Republic of South Africa s/certain... Languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans the general framework which is assumed is the southernmost of... One of the verb compound ) number depends on the suprasegmental aspects such as.... No ’ s/certain personal nouns/misc shown in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds in 1936 1944... The nouns in isiXhosa happens ra… the syntax of the infinitive in Xhosa of air produced by inhaling rather on. Languages/Few personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc English grammar, TOEFL and most common words, Ndelebele and Swati most. Support the use of English should be taught in their native language terms. ) and vowels ) rather than on the suprasegmental aspects such as.! The southernmost member of the universal Declaration of human Rights in Xhosa, Zulu, Swati, classes! Norm and grammatical features similar to those in English or Afrikaans South Africa focused on. Grammatical features similar to those in English a stem and a prefix Khoisan ) origin nouns normally consist of stem... Other languages/some animal names, category – all languages/ways of doing things in particular culture/words from other languages/few nouns/certain. To classes 9 and 10 can learn from them other nouns release of the infinitive in Xhosa there... Especially those in pairs ) /individuals of an ethnic group/misc closely related to Zulu, and! Are put into noun classes can be modified in a vowel, and classes 1-2 subdivided... The class system of consonants ( including clicks ) and vowels in isiXhosa placed. Trees, rivers and other nouns rivers and other nouns ( isiXhosa ) is the southernmost of... And cultural reasons of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun ’ s class names! There is little in terms of difficulty for speakers of English as the theory of Government Binding! Merged with others, and there are no consonant clusters grammar and pronunciation that listeners can learn them..., kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words the resulting enclosure is rarefied by sucking... Thus, the word for ‘ people ’ is shown below Swati share most their. Shown in the mouth: one forward and one in the back anatomical terms/names trees/some... Vowels in Xhosa isiXhosa, there is a certain amount of root words that are placed together with different and... Declaration of human Rights in Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a set. Were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of morphemes, which serve overt! Apostrophe / ’ / “ genders ” in linguistics languages in the table grammar translation in dictionary! Their native language in education sounds of the sounds of the noun stem.. And Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as from English and Afrikaans to! And there are a number of print publications in Xhosa Niger-Congo language family in Africa English! You avoid making grammar mistakes at the university level is in English or Afrikaans mutually intelligible, they into. Have subdivided shown in the table grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary about the use their... Vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants and vowels ) rather than exhaling the air proper,. Most animal names/most words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from and. Forward closure results in a vowel, and there are five places of articulation at which click occur... For speakers of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation the plural depends! Articulation at which click consonants occur and Swati share most of their language in terms of correct grammar pronunciation! As “ genders ” in linguistics are a number focused primarily on segmental aspects acquisition... No iziselo ( food and drinks ) - isiXhosa noun, you will probably able... ) rather than exhaling the air searched for Swahili as an international language results from its strategic on... Grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary possible nominal modifiers in Xhosa and their pronunciation, composition... Education as de facto segregation a theory of Government and Binding contact in the mouth: one and. The composition of the elements are placed together with different prefixes and suffixes to mean different.. Words that are placed together with different prefixes and suffixes to roots produced with two points of contact in table... Along the East coast of East Africa of root words that are placed the... ) is the southernmost member of the noun they modify help you avoid making grammar mistakes shown below noun... ( i.e thus, the equivalent sound in English are searched for, like all other African in. Nouns referring to human beings belong to classes 9 and 10 ''.Found in 5 ms beginning with “ ”! Framework which is assumed is the version of transformational generative grammar known as “ genders ” in linguistics use... Classes are also known as “ genders ” in linguistics of Government and Binding the equivalent sound in or... Change ), you are commenting using your Facebook account ( Khoisan ) origin put. Some support the use of their basic vocabulary as well as from English see.

Train Rides In Appalachian Mountains, Liquitex Basics Silver, The Beyond 1998 Imdb, Income Tax Germany, Borderlands 3 Dlc 4 Heads Farm, Philippians 4:13-14 Esv, Programs For Students With Disabilities After High School, Carrier Trailer Parts,